Any person can turn to ECtHR who feels that a party of the Convention (a state) has violated the person’s rights or freedoms under the Convention. The decisions of the Court are binding to parties of the Convention, the execution of the Court’s rulings is being monitored by the Committee of Ministers. The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms grant the right:
- to life, liberty and security of person;
- to a fair hearing in civil and criminal matters;
- to elect representative bodies and be elected to them;
- to freedom of conscience, thought and religion;
- to freedom of speech (including freedom of the press);
- to property.
The Convention forbids:
- torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
- death penalty;
- expulsion or denial of entry of its own citizen;
- collective expulsion of foreigners.
The fulfilment of the Convention is controlled by the European Court of Human Rights. The Convention is supplemented by the European Social Charter, the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Estonia has joined with all of these. Other institutions of the Council of Europe dealing with human rights:
- the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI);
- the Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT);
- the Commissioner for Human Rights.