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Kazakhstan

(last updated: 25.05.2019)

 

Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Kazakhstan were established on 27 May 1992. The Estonian Embassy in Nur-Sultan (former Astana) was opened in 2011. The Estonian ambassador to Kazakhstan is Heiti Mäemees who presented his credentials to President Nursultan Nazarbayev on 18 October 2017. The mission of Kazakhstan’s previous Ambassador to Estonia (residing in Helsinki) Murat Nurtleuov terminated  in April, the current chargé d'affaires is Arman Tanirbergenov. There is a Kazakh Consulate in Tallinn, headed by Dudar Zhakenov.

The Estonia-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Group was re-established in the XIV Riigikogu in the spring of 2019. It is chaired by Aadu Must and consists of 6 deputies.

Relations between Estonia and Kazakhstan are good and operative, both at the political and technical level. 

Visits

To Kazakhstan:
November 2018 Prime Minister Jüri Ratas with business delegation
May 2016 Minister of Finance Sven Sester at the Astana Economic Forum
September 2015 Head of the Estonia-Kazakhstan parliamentary group Deniss Boroditš
May 2015 Former President Arnold Rüütel took part in the Astana Forum. On 31 May 2015 President Rüütel opened a memorial stone at the memorial in Spassk near Karaganda, which is dedicated to Estonians deported to Karlag. The stone was blessed by Archbishop Emeritus Põder and representatives of those repressed were present.
November 2013 Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications Juhan Parts for the 4th session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
September 2012 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip with a business delegation
May 2012 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet
February 2011 Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications Juhan Parts for the 2nd session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
December 2010 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip at the OSCE summit
July 2010 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet at the meeting of OSCE foreign ministers
September 2009 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip with a business delegation
October 2008 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet
October 2006 Minister of Transport and Communications Edgar Savisaar
June 2004 President Arnold Rüütel with a business delegation
April 2001 Minister of Transport and Communications Toivo Jürgenson at the transit conference in Astana
June 2000 Minister of Transport and Communications Toivo Jürgenson at the transport and transit conference TRANSEURASIA 2000
To Estonia:
March 2018 Deputy Prime Minister Askar Zhumagaliyev
October 2016 Deputy Foreign Minister Roman Vassilenko at the 5th session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
August 2012 Minister of Transportation and Communication Askar Zhumagaliyev at the 3rd session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
April 2011 State visit of President Nursultan Nazarbayev
March 2010 Deputy Foreign Minister Rapil Zhoshybayev at the first session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
February 2001 Chairman of the Parliament Jarmakhan Tuyakbay with a parliamentary delegation
December 2000 Deputy Prime Minister Daniyal Ahmetov with a delegation of governmental and business representatives
May 2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs Erlan Idrisov

Bilateral cooperation

The development of relations between Estonia and Kazakhstan has been significantly influenced by the Agreement on economic, research and technical co-operation that came into force in 2010. Based on the agreement, the Estonia and Kazakhstan Inter-Governmental Commission came together for the first time in 2010, and has now convened a total of five times. The fifth session of the Commission convened on 24 October 2016 in Tallinn. The Estonian delegation was led by Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Väino Reinart and the delegation of Kazakhstan by Roman Vassilenko, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. The agenda of the Commission's plenary meeting included general economic relations between Estonia and Kazakshtan, including trade, transport, agriculture, education and science, as well as cooperation in the fields of tourism, cyber security and social sphere.

In addition to transport and transit, several other economy-related areas are of particular interest to Estonia, such as IT, agriculture, education and environment (sustainable development and green energy). Kazakhstan is interested in Estonia's experience in e-governance and the use of IT solutions in various fields.

Treaties

  • Agreement on mutual understanding and cooperation (entered into force on 25 May 1995).
  • Agreement on avoidance of double taxation and prevention of tax evasion (came into force 19 Jul 2000).
  • Agreement on international road transport (came into force 18 Dec 2002).
  • Agreement on cooperation in the field of railway transport (came into force 29 Mar 2003).
  • Agreement on cooperation in the fight against organized crime and other forms of crime (signed 2 Jun 2004, provisionally applicable from the moment of signing).
  • Agreement on co-operation in the field of culture and humanities (came into force 9 June 2006).
  • Agreement on economic, research and technical co-operation (came into force 4 March 2010).
  • Agreement on co-operation in combating organized and other forms of crime (came into force 16 January 2012).
  • Agreement on reciprocal promotion and protection of investments (came into force 26 August 2014).

Economic relations

 

TRADE

 

Estonian-Kazakhstan trade 2014-2019 (in million EUR):

Year Exports Imports
2014 34.5 25.0
2015 26.1 5.3
2016 16.6 4.0
2017 23.3 3.8
2018 34.3 2.2
2019 Q1 6.0 0.5

All economic figures originate from the Statistical Office of Estonia.
 

The total trade turnover in 2018 grew by more than a third (35%) compared to 2017 and amounted to almost 37 million euros, which made up 0.1% of Estonia's total trade. Kazakhstan held 48th place among Estonia's trade partners (40th place among export partners and 69th place among import partners). Estonian export to Kazakhstan grew by 47% thanks to an increase of 15 million euros in the export of machinery and mechanical appliances. The share of goods of Estonian origin in the export to Kazakhstan has been around 40% over the last four years.

The total trade turnover during the first quarter of 2019 was only 6.5 mln EUR which was less than 60% compared to the first quarter of 2018. Export decreased by 62% and import grew by 25%. The biggest decrease in export was that of machinery and mechanical appliances (-9 mln EUR compared to 2018 Q1).

Main export articles in 2018:

  • Machinery and mechanical appliances – 67%
  • Chemical products – 7%
  • Base metals and articles of base metal – 6% 
  • Animal products – 4%

Main import articles in 2018:

  • Chemical products – 55%
  • Mineral products – 20%

The main export articles during 2019 Q1 were machinery and mechanical appliances (62%), animal products (8%), food and drinks (8%) ning transport equipment (7%). The main import articles during 2019 Q1 were chemical products (74%).

 

INVESTMENTS

 

Kazakhstan's direct investments in Estonia (mln EUR):

31.12.2014          8.4
31.12.2015          9.9
31.12.2016          15.7
31.12.2017          26
31.12.2018          24.1

Kazakhstan's direct investments in Estonia have increased from 3 mln EUR (2013) to 24 mln EUR (2018). Investments have mainly been made in  the sectors of wholesale and retail trade (41% of Kazakhstan's direct investments), management and aid activities (25%) and transport and storage (12%). 

Estonia's direct investments in Kazakhstan (mln EUR):

31.12.2014         32.7
31.12.2015         31.4
31.12.2016         31.4
31.12.2017         31.5
31.12.2018         9

In 2018, Estonia’s direct investments in Kazakhstan amounted to only 9 mln EUR (71% decrease compared to 2017). This was due to decrease of investments in the transport and storage sector which is the sector with most investments (71%).

According to the Business Register, there were 70 companies with Kazakh shareholders registered in Estonia as of May 2018.

As of 13.05.2019 there are 102 e-residents of Kazakh citizenship who have established 19 companies.

Kazakhs in Estonia

 

According to the 2011 census, there were 103 Kazakhs living in Estonia.

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