|-||Norwegian Financial Mechanisms|
|-||Culture and Education|
The Kingdom of Norway recognized the Republic of Estonia de jure on 5 February 1921. Norway never recognized the illegal annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union and after the Second World War some Estonian honorary consulates in Norway continued their existence. Diplomatic relations were re-established on 27 August 1991. In the autumn of 1991, Norway opened its´ Embassy in Tallinn and Brit Løvseth started her work as Norway’s ambassador to Estonia. Current Norwegian Ambassador Dagfinn Sørli presented his credentials to President Toomas Hendrik Ilves on September 18, 2014.
In February 1994, Estonia opened its embassy in Oslo with Mr. Tiit Naber appointed as a Chargé d'Affaires and . since 2000, the Estonian Ambassador has resided in Oslo. Currently the Estonian ambassador to Norway is Ms. Janne Jõesaar-Ruusalu , who presented her credentials to King of Norway Harald V on 22nd of September 2016.
Estonia has six honorary consuls in Norway - Trond Bernhard Brekke in Trondheim, Per Trygve Kongsnes in Tromsø, Reidar and Oscar Maaseide in Stavanger, Eivind Lund in Krisiansand and Karin Ellis in Bergen.
There is also a Norwegian parliamentary group in Estonian Parliament (Riigikogu).
|March 2016||Minister of European Affairs Elisabeth Aspaker|
|October 2014||Minister of EEA and EU Affairs Vidar Helgesen|
|October 2014||Official visit of the head of the Norwegian Armed Forces Haakon Bruun-Hanssen|
|October 2011||Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg|
|September 2008||Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre|
|November 2007||President of the Parliament Thorbjørn Jagland|
|October 2002||Foreign Minister Jan Petersen|
|February 2002||Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik|
|October 1999||President of the Parliament Kirsti Kolle Grøndal|
|August 1998||State visit of King of Norway Harald V and Queen Sonja|
|April 1998||Foreign Minister Knut Vollebæk|
|October 2016||Minister of European Affairs Elisabeth Aspaker|
|September 2014||President Toomas Hendrik Ilves on a state visit|
|May 2014||Foreign Minister Urmas Paet|
|October 2013||Prime Minister Andrus Ansip for the NB8 Prime Ministers meeting|
|August 2013||Official visit of the Head of the Defence Forces Riho Terras|
|August 2010||Foreign Minister Urmas Paet|
|March 2006||Foreign Minister Urmas Paet|
|February 2005||Prime Minister Juhan Parts|
|July 2004||Minister of Defence Margus Hanson|
|September 2002||Minister of Regional Affairs Toivo Asmer|
|April 2002||President Arnold Rüütel|
|September 2001||Minister of Culture Signe Kivi|
|October 2000||Foreign Minister Toomas Hendrik Ilves|
Relations between Estonia and Norway are characterised by close co-operation in the areas of economy, culture and defence. The traditionally good relations with Norway are reflected by, among other things, the considerable volume of bilateral trade and Norwegian investments to Estonia.
Estonia's relations with Norway in the framework of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, as well as in the co-operation of the Baltic and Nordic countries, are notably extensive and diverse.
In 1995 the framework agreement for bilateral defence cooperation between Estonia and Norway was signed. At the international level, Norway repeatedly expressed its support for Estonia’s aspirations to accede to NATO.
Norway has rendered assistance in the coordination and development of several cooperation projects in the field of defence. The first Estonian peacekeepers were trained in Norway’s peacekeeping company and, from 1996-1997, their baptism by fire in the ranks of Norway’s peacekeeping forces in Lebanon. After Estonia’s accession to NATO the main focus of defence-related cooperation shifted to co-operation within NATO. Keywords in this context are Norway’s participation in Baltic air policing, cooperation in training, joint training projects, logistics, and defence policy consultations. Bilateral political-military negotiations also take place on a regular basis.
Practical defence-related cooperation with Norway also takes place in the NB8 format (Baltic + Nordic countries) and jointly participating in the EU Nordic Battle Group.
The Estonian defence attaché in Norway since 2016 is Colonel Lietunant Kalev Koidumäe, who resides in Stockholm.
An important instrument of bilateral relations is the EMP/Norway support system (EEA/Norway Grants).
An important part in Estonian – Norwegian relations since 2004 are the EEA / Norway financial mechanisms. Three non-EU countries – Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein – contribute to EU structural funds that aims to assist investment and development projects, contribute to reducing social and economic disparities in EU and deepen bilateral relations with donors.
During the first 5-year implementation period (2004-2009) the amount of fund for Estonia was approx. 30 million EUR, the projects funded mainly environmental, cultural heritage (i.e. renovating manor schools in Väätsa, Puurmanni, Laupa, Kogi, Olustvere etc), health care and regional policy areas.
Over the second implementation period 2009 – 2014 Estonia’s share was approximately 45 million EUR. The science cooperation program, aimed to support research and development activities, proved to be very popular. 13 projects with good potential received financing and were carried out in collaboration with universities in Norway.
Another program in which the cooperation between Estonia and Norway is quite active is the Green Industry Innovation program, led by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications and Enterprise Estonia, which focuses on intelligent solutions for information and communication technology.
The negotiations regarding the third period 2014 – 2021 are ongoing Estonia’s share will be approx. 68 million EUR. The Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries will be signed in spring 2017.
Estonia and Norway have signed all major economic agreements:
- Agreement on the Mutual Promotion and Protection of Investments
- Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital
- Air Services Agreement and Agreement concerning International Road Transport
As of 1 May 2004, Estonia-Norway trade relations are regulated by the European Economic Area Agreement (EAA).
In 2008, the Norwegian-Estonian Chamber of Commerce was created in Tallinn, since 2016 3 representatives of Enterprise Estonia work in Oslo.
Norway is one of Estonia's most important export partners and our balance of trade is strongly positive. As of 2016, Norway positioned 11-12th among Estonia’s biggest trading partners (2,3 % of all trade).
Estonia-Norway trade 2009-2016 (million EUR):
|Year||Export||% of total export||Import||% of total import||Balance|
Major export articles in 2016:
- Manufactured goods (wooden houses; lamps and lighting fixtures, furniture, etc) – 32.2%
- Timber and timber products – 19%
- Machinery and mechanical equipment – 14%
- Vehicles, planes, ships and other transport vehicles – 7%. Norway ranked as Estonia’s 21st import partner, the import in 2016 fell by 6% compared to 2015.
Major import articles in 2014:
- Machinery and mechanical equipment – 29.7%
- Mineral products – 8.9%
- Metals and metal products – 11.4%
All economic figures originate from the Statistical Office of Estonia
(source: Bank of Estonia)
Norway is an important investor in Estonia, ranking 8th among foreign investors. Norwegian investments were worth 474 million EUR which is 2,7% of the total value of investments made to Estonia.
|Norwegian investments in Estonia||408,1||689||695,5||889,8||696,2||474,4|
|Estonian investments in Norway||44||36,5||36,8||36,4||17,6||48,3|
|Norwegian investments in Estonia||408,1||689||695,5||889,8||696,2||474,4|
Direct investments from Norway are primarily made in professional, research and technical activity ( 35%), financial and insurance sector (21%) and wholesale and retail trade ( 13% of investments).
Estonian investments in Norway (0,8% of all direct investments abroad) are mainly in processing industry (56%), real estate (17%) and wholesale and retail trade ( 8%).
The number of tourists from Norway have slightly decreased over the last 6 years, in 2016 approximately 38 000 Norwegian tourists stayed overnight in Estonia (1,8% of all the tourists).
Worth mentioning among Estonia’s and Norway’s close communication in the sphere of culture are the reciprocal visits and frequent performances of singing choirs, dance ensembles, delegations of friendship towns and counties.
There is an active Norwegian Estonian Society that primarily brings together Norwegians interested in Estonia who currently number around 200. The society regularly publishes the newsletter Estlands-nytt 3 to 4 times a year. The Norwegian Estonian Society brings together Estonians living in Norway; the main goal of the society is to support the integration of Estonians living in Norway.
as of 2016, approximately 6000 Estonian citizens are living and working in Norway.
MUSIC, THEATRE, FILM
Famous performers such saxophonist Jan Garbarek as pianist Sigurd Slåttebrekk, violinist Henning Kraggerud, jazz musicians Jarle Bernhoft, Trio Mediaeval, the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Bergen Symphony Orchestra have given concerts in Estonia, Norwegian musicians also perform regularly at annual Jazzkaar
Estonian culture has been introduced in Norway from several aspects Estonian musicians have performed at various festivals, introducing the music of Arvo Pärt, Veljo Tormis, Tõnu Kõrvits, Erkki-Sve Tüür and others.
Several successful projects have been carried out in collaboration with other embassies, or a larger group: annual Baltic Film Festival, Oslo Culture Night, the Oslo Poetry Festival (one Estonian poet participates annually), the Tromsø International Film Festival, the Norwegian Short Film Festival (Estonian films participate every year), Europe Jazz Night, the Eurodok Film Festival and the Science Festival.
Several Estonian films have been screened in Norway, like “1944”, “In crosswind” and “Clementines”. The Baltic Film Days, organized by Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Societies along with respective embassies, have become a tradition already
EDUCATION, LANGUAGE, LITERATURE, ART
Norway has supported the construction of Tartu University’s language building, and supports the instruction of Norwegian language and literature at the University as well. Norwegian can also be taken as a minor subject at Tallinn University. A co-operation agreement has been signed between Tartu University’s history and philosophy department and Oslo University’s language department.
In 2014, the reprint of Norwegian-Estonian/Estonian-Norwegian Dictionary waspublished.
Translations from Estonian into Norwegian have mainly been made by Turid Farbregd, a Norwegian Estophile living and working in Finland, for example the works by Jaan Kross and Viivi Luik. In 2016 Meelis Friendthal’s novel “Bees” was translated in Norwegian by Øyvind Rangøy.
In 2015, a photo exhibition “My Favourite Things” by Jazznytt editor Jan Granlie took place in Riigikogu.
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