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Kazakhstan

(last updated: 18.05.2018)

 

Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Kazakhstan were established on 27 May 1992. The Estonian Embassy in Astana was opened in 2011. The Estonian ambassador to Kazakhstan is Heiti Mäemees who presented his credentials to President Nazarbayev on 18 October 2017. Kazakhstan’s Ambassador to Estonia Murat Nurtleuov presented his credentials to President Kersti Kaljulaid in July 2017 and he resides in Helsinki. There is a Kazakh Consulate in Tallinn, headed by Dudar Zhakenov.

The Estonia-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Group  was re-established in the Riigikogu in the spring of 2015. It is chaired by Deniss Boroditš and consists of 15 deputies.

Good and operative relations exist between Estonia and Kazakhstan and cooperation between institutions of the two countries has been established.

 

Visits

To Kazakhstan:
May 2016 Minister of Finance Sven Sester at the Astana Economic Forum
September 2015 Head of the Estonia-Kazakhstan parliamentary group Deniss Boroditš
May 2015 Former President Arnold Rüütel took part in the Astana Forum. On 31 May 2015 President Rüütel opened a memorial stone at the memorial in Spassk near Karaganda, which is dedicated to Estonians deported to Karlag. The stone was blessed by Archbishop Emeritus Põder and representatives of those repressed were present.
November 2013 Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications Juhan Parts for the 4th session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
September 2012 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip with a business delegation
May 2012 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet
February 2011 Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications Juhan Parts for the 2nd session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
December 2010 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip at the OSCE summit
July 2010 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet at the meeting of OSCE foreign ministers
September 2009 Prime Minister Andrus Ansip with a business delegation
October 2008 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet
October 2006 Minister of Transport and Communications Edgar Savisaar
June 2004 President Arnold Rüütel with a business delegation
April 2001 Minister of Transport and Communications Toivo Jürgenson at the transit conference in Astana
June 2000 Minister of Transport and Communications Toivo Jürgenson at the transport and transit conference TRANSEURASIA 2000
To Estonia:
March 2018 Deputy Prime Minister Askar Zhumagaliyev
October 2016 Deputy Foreign Minister Roman Vassilenko at the 5th session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
August 2012 Minister of Transportation and Communication Askar Zhumagaliyev at the 3rd session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
April 2011 State visit of President Nursultan Nazarbayev
March 2010 Deputy Foreign Minister Rapil Zhoshybayev at the first session of the Estonia-Kazakhstan intergovernmental commission
February 2001 Chairman of the Parliament Jarmakhan Tuyakbay with a parliamentary delegation
December 2000 Deputy Prime Minister Daniyal Ahmetov with a delegation of governmental and business representatives
May 2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs Erlan Idrisov

Transnational cooperation

The development of relations between Estonia and Kazakhstan has been significantly influenced by the coming into force in 2010 of the Agreement on economic, research and technical co-operation. Based on the agreement, the Estonia and Kazakhstan Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) came together for the first time in 2010, and has now convened a total of five times. The fifth session of the Commission convened on 24 October 2016 in Tallinn. The Estonian delegation was led by Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Väino Reinart and the delegation of Kazakhstan by Roman Vassilenko, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. The agenda of the commission's plenary meeting included general economic relations between Estonia nd Kazakshtan, including trade, transport, agriculture, education and science, as well as cooperation in the fields of tourism, cyber security and social sphere.

In addition to transport and transit, several other economy-related areas are of particular interest to Estonia, such as environment (sustainable development and green energy), education, agriculture and the social sphere. Kazakhstan is interested in Estonia's experience in e-governance and the use of IT solutions in various fields.

Treaties

  • Agreement on mutual understanding and cooperation (entered into force on 25 May 1995).
  • Agreement on avoidance of double taxation and prevention of tax evasion (came into force 19 Jul 2000).
  • Agreement on international road transport (came into force 18 Dec 2002).
  • Agreement on cooperation in the field of railway transport (came into force 29 Mar 2003).
  • Agreement on cooperation in the fight against organized crime and other forms of crime (signed 2 Jun 2004, provisionally applicable from the moment of signing).
  • Agreement on co-operation in the field of culture and humanities (came into force 9 June 2006).
  • Agreement on economic, research and technical co-operation (came into force 4 March 2010).
  • Agreement on co-operation in combating organized and other forms of crime (came into force 16 January 2012).
  • Agreement on reciprocal promotion and protection of investments (came into force 26 August 2014).

Economic relations

 

TRADE

Estonian-Kazakhstan trade 2012-2017 (in million EUR)

Year Exports Imports
2012 85.5 47.7
2013 47.9 8.3
2014 34.5 25.0
2015 26.1 5.3
2016 16.6 4.0
2017 23.4 3.8

All economic figures originate from the Statistical Office of Estonia.
 

In 2012 Kazakhstan rose among Estonia’s trade partners to 26th place with a total trade turnover of 133.2 million euros, which made up 0.5% of total trade. Kazakhstan held 22nd place (0.7% of all exports) among Estonia’s export partners, with a turnover of close to 86 million euros,  and 26th place among import partners (0.3% of all imports) with a turnover of 48 million euros.

In the following years, trade with Kazakhstan decreased and amounted to only 20.6 million euros in 2016, making Kazakhstan Estonia's 49th trade partner (0.1% share of overall trade). In 2017, export to Kazakhstan increased by 32% to over 23 million euros worth of goods, which made Kazakhstan Estonia's 43th export destination. Goods amounting to 3.8 million euros were imported, placing Kazakhstan as 57th import partner.

Main export articles in 2017:

  • Machinery and equipment – 35%
  • Transportation vehicles – 26%
  • Chemical products – 11% 

Main import articles in 2017:

  • Mineral products – 48%
  • Chemical products – 41%

 

 

INVESTMENTS

 

Kazakhstan's direct investments in Estonia (mln EUR):

31.12.2012          4
31.12.2013          3.4
31.12.2014          8.4
31.12.2015          10.6
31.12.2016          15.9
31.12.2017          26

Kazakhstan's direct investments in Estonia have increased from 3 million EUR (2013) to 26 mln EUR (2017). Investments have mainly been made in professional, research and technology related activities (7.6 mln EUR which amounts to 29% of Kazakhstan's direct investments), management and aid activities (25%), transport and storage sector (18%) and financial and insurance activities (11%). 

Estonia's direct investments in Kazakhstan (mln EUR):

31.12.2012         0.4
31.12.2013         31.4
31.12.2014         32.7
31.12.2015         31.4
31.12.2016         31.4
31.12.2017         31.5

Estonia’s direct investments in Kazakhstan have remained practically the same throughout the last five years, amounting to 31.5 million EUR as of 31 December 2017. Investments have mainly been made in transport and storage (over 25 million euros which constitutes 79% of Estonian direct investments to Kazakhstan). Investments have also been made in wholesale and retail trade (17%), and to a lesser extent in the information and communication sector, as well as financial and insurance activities.

According to the Business Register, there were 62 companies with Kazakh shareholders registered in Estonia as of May 2017.

Kazakhs in Estonia

 

According to the 2011 census, there were 103 Kazakhs living in Estonia.

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